Description Set Racchi:
Some references on the temple Wirakocha Racchi:
If we start to make a bibliographical and historical sources analysis, we mention this set both writings of the XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX and XX, ie in Hispanic chronicles of the period of foreign domination, as travelers both colonial and Republicans, so we have for example the entries made by:
Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. – In his chronicle “The Royal Commentaries” in Book IV, chapter entitled “Inka Wirakocha styling sends a temple in memory of his uncle’s ghost.”
Juan Diez de Betanzos. – In his chronicle “Sum and narration of the Incas” in a heading of Chapter II, it makes no mention and reference to the temple.
Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. – In his chronicle entitled “History of the Incas” it gives, in Chapter XXI us a comprehensive report and reference Wirakocha temple.
Ernest W. Middendorf. – It gives a great description of the temple we In his work “Peru I-II-III”, in Chapter IV of Volume III.
In the department of Cusco, province of K’anchis district of San Pedro de Kaqcha, bias Racchi, 121 Km. From the city of Cusco, this monument and archaeological complex is of utmost importance. This set is directly related to the height of the Inca period. The references made by Joan Santa Cruz Pachakuti Llanque Salcamayhua, Pedro Cieza de Leon, Betanzos, Garcilaso, show us the importance of this sector, since it was not only Wirakocha temple but a great prehispanic urban complex. These constructions of the complex and temple were made in the period Pachakutcq (although more likely that the building has been for Apu P’unchao or Apu Teqse or Pachayachachiq, since the same chroniclers tell us that the term Wirakocha is placed or added to God true end of Maker and Creator of the Incas); This resort is located on a plain, which is crowned by a volcano off, called Kinsachata, an area located on the right bank of the river Vilcanota or Wilkamayu.
Physical documentation is abundant and is the presence of monuments, housing remains, canals, terraces, fountains, reservoirs, a wall ring, middens, burial areas (places that are found in caves), so we find petroglyphs in the sector Kinsachata volcano; thus we find preinkas and Inca remains, also an overlap of colonial and republican. So the architectural elements can be studied in its possible function and use. All these reasons have allowed in this sector various types of studies and research such as from 1962, initially by the National San Antonio Abad University of Cusco, and then by the National Institute of Culture, studies of Dr . Chavez Bailon, Dr. Luis Barreda Murillo, Dr. Oscar Nunez del Prado; so by the Spanish foreign missions as directed by Dr. Ballesteros Gabrois.
Racchi the archaeological area covers an area of three square kilometers whose orientation is:
East-west with 3. 5 km. Long-long.
North-south with 2. 5 Km. Of extension-wide.
Making up almost the way. of a trapezoid whose base is in the south. This geometric figure is made up as follows; by the Vilcanota River and the slopes of the volcano Kinsachata is in the partiality of QEA, facing east and west, the flat expanse of this sector is called Aqowasi Pampa; the lower side of the figure to the north, culminating in the crater of the volcano Kinsachata. This sector is easy to determine because of the presence of the wall ring Inca origin exists. Currently this wall serving as a boundary between rural biases of the sector; this wall is called today by the locals with the name of Ch’eqata. Thus, we have in this area and mostly within the inner perimeter of the wall surrounded by sector, we can find the following architectural archaeological units:
The Main Temple.
The set or group of platforms and constructions Mesapata.
Irrigation canals and fountains.
Chaski called barracks and construction Wasi called Jail Raqay.
The terraces (agricultural terraces).
The roads (NAN) tawantinsuyanos.
The kanchas of QEA.
The wall of Ch’eqata.
The cemeteries in the caves of K’uimiqnqa.
The Kinsachata Ch’ullpas and burials.
Landfills of Yanamancha.
This ratio shows that this area was large multifunctional building complex.
The Main Temple or Temple of Wirakocha:
Of research in this architectural complex we can say that this construction the inhabitants of the region called kumpi Awara. That means, where tissues are made or, also called the site with the name that is Inka Perqa inka wall.
The dimensions of this temple are 92 m. long by 26 m. wide and 12 m. tall, with a north-south orientation, occupies almost the central area of the archaeological site; among all buildings constructed by the Inca state this is among the most important and large. According to the chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega that temple was built during the reign of Inka Wirakocha in homage to the Creator God of the World of Andean ideology, but according to those who appreciate the other chroniclers, all respondents attribute their construction Pachakuti , which is more evident as the type of planning and urban functionality, so by the architectural style, corresponds to the period of this ruling.
It is seen in this construction a central wall, which is observed, down to about a 3 m. high, a facing lytic character (the type of stone used is tufa) and it continues a wall made of adobe with a height of 9 m., in the central wall there are ten gates, on which, presumably, they had or exist ten-windows; It presupposes the existence of a second level, with the same number of doors and windows, and there are in vain lithic fragments wall of light; then on each side of the wall two rows of columns can be seen, each row of 11 columns being in total 22 columns, the central wall divided into two well defined sections (which would be an element that shows the duality, yanantin); columns, are only the bottoms of the bases, only one remains complete and feet and is 9 m. high and its lower third is stone while its upper two thirds are of adobe; both the foundations of the central wall and the columns penetrate the ground to a depth of approximately 1.50 m. in the northern part and the southern part, there were walls that closed this construction, the wall of the southern part had access doors. The roof of this building was gabled or two aspects, ie dual slope; the north and south walls formed triangular gables or wall, on which rested on its slope roof. This had a woven straw on deck, giving the structure a sufficient lightness and impermeability; thus, the structure of the walls was not overloaded with a higher resistance to weight, and with a light roof structure construction has increased strength. On the east and west sections has discovered the presence of foundation walls, with a thickness of one meter, they closed the temple, but can not give an estimate, even approximate, of the height of these walls; in sections of stone and the adobe, they were covered by a plaster red brick, decorated it in stages, which is also seen in other places and this proves that the Incas stuccoed walls.
We need to clarify that the description by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in his chronicle, does not match the remains that are still appreciated, but in all honesty we have to say that the description of chronicles in this case, fill certain gaps that exist by lack of physical remains.
George Squier references and drawings made by him, the work of Luis A. Pardo, the studies and the Archaeological Mission of San Antonio Abad National University of Cusco, the work and studies of Dr. Oscar Nunez del Prado, Dr. Ballesteros Gabrois and many other researchers, we not only got the knowledge of what this temple, but also of the other places, which can be deduced the importance of the architectural complex and can also try their restoration this helped by architectural firms architect G. Gasparini, although these studies there is a failure in the ideal model reconstruction of the temple (this is due to the roof construction design reaches almost to the ground).
The excavations were carried one kilometer from the temple group in the area K’umuqaqa Yanamancha and showed us the presence of pottery belonging to the Qaluyo and Wari periods and 17 human remains (individuals) they were also found in many of which deformation and trepanning be seen, this shows the occupation of this sector by previous human settlements to the Incas; human remains we can say almost nothing, since lack of a deeper study in physical anthropology, dating and especially a study of osteology and osteometry.
The data obtained so far by the various research projects in Racchi, are so abundant that even they have not been fully classified, so little has been classified and interpreted can get to show the complexity of this vast archaeological site It has different occupations and was multifunctional.
They are a succession of large buildings arranged symmetrically, with straight streets, buildings that were possibly primarily a function of social characteristics, ie, housing or other utility specifications; between the buildings there are small squares. The buildings still retain the settlement gables and roofs are stone and adobe.
They are a succession of large and medium-sized buildings that were used as deposits of various elements, such as barns, but research in this sector are finding certain forms of ritual characteristics that developed in these buildings.
The set or group of buildings Andenes and Mesapata:
This sector consists of a succession of terraces or terraces agricultural character, where many of them are in perfect condition; but keep in mind that the terraces are not only components used for agricultural purposes but are multifunctional, as elements of containment against landslides, erosion protection, ie construction of ecological protection.
The set of buildings was related to the platforms or terraces, ie they were homes of farmers and deposits utilitarian character, but all in relation to this area of agricultural production.
Irrigation Channels and Sources:
Throughout the archaeological site of Racchi the presence of a number of channels shown, which had as basic function water transportation, both for human consumption and agricultural use. In this great network of canals excellent use of the system of communicating vessels siphons or appreciated.
So we also find, in all the archaeological site, a large number of sources, many of which were ritual features, others had been utilitarian functions or other polyfunctional character.
Thus, the system of sources and channels, was made following a planning, both urban and rural areas as productive as their function was adapted according to the socio-political-economic needs of the State and ecosystem planning, both productive and human settlement, demonstrating the resilience of media.
Denominated Barracks Chaski Wasi and called Construcciones Jail Raqay:
Chaski barracks called Wasi were traditionally regarded as military construction sets or military characteristics, it can be said pillboxes or strong.
But if it is seen more social criteria, are constructions of more utilitarian features, the same name (although it may be that the original name has been another, or has been changed) we are stating a social function, ie the houses of the Chaskis (the Chaskis were the postal system or coaching runners to carry messages or other items from one place to another). Regarding Prison Raqay think more about their social, matching function with the political strategy of Quechua State.
These are agricultural terraces but at the same time as said earlier, elements of ecological protection, ie preventing erosion and landslides.
These terraces are an adaptation system geographic areas to production needs, which would become an extension of the agricultural frontier, an adaptation of production levels.
We must, in the Quechua state existed called Nan (roads), the Tuna Ñan (large roads), nan Juchuy (small roads), which were tiled with stones, with side canals, bridges, tunnels, and great use of stairs.
The ihkas roads usually were straight, attacked the mountains with ups and downs but using straight or zigzag systems; well, possessed break points and other types of buildings in relation to them; thus, in this archaeological site passes a inka way to the sector Qollasuyo, but not only this but arrive and depart from this sector a number of main roads and secondary ie was an enclave or point traffic distribution with we appreciate that this area was not cut off from the rest of the complex Quechua territorial political system as it actually was one of many planned urban elements with system characteristics.
The kanchas of QEA:
These are great architectural groupings. As the Quechua term indicates, Kancha means neighborhood, set, grouping of buildings, fenced area, is the term itself and the arrangement of the buildings that the purely utilitarian function of these groupings of buildings can be seen, which were districts for settlement human; but do not think they were only houses, but there were areas in kanchas deposits, work, social and religious activities. Thus, the kanchas of QEA are architectural elements of social and multiutilitaria function.
The Wall Ch’eqata:
It is a large wall ring that contornaba this large population area. Even today, you can see this wall. This wall had a dual purpose: first, as a control element of social movement, that is to control the input and output indiscriminate population; The second function was possibly as an element of defense against the inhabitants of that social group.
Cemeteries in the caves of K’umuqaqa:
In these caves or natural cavities, they found skeletal remains. They are pre-Hispanic burial sectors; we must bear in mind that, according to the Andean ideology, the person who died, had to enter the Uju Pacha (land in, or hinterland), pass a river of blood through a bridge of plaited hair, accompanied by a black dog and then came to ipha Marica or mute world, where the soul of the dead is purified and freed of Juch’as or thickeners and negative bodies after a cycle the soul could transmigrate. Then you need to be aware that the caves were also elements that symbolically represented the Pachamama, therefore, these caves were used as burial places fact that is not surprising, so the burial caves of K’umuqaqa fulfilled religious functions, ideological and utilitarian.
Burials in the Ch’ullpas or Kinsachata Sector:
The Ch’ullpas are constructions like towers, but these are not of a military nature but are funerary use; are burial-ritual-utilitarian buildings that preceded the Inca constructions and then, by the Incas inherited cultural transfer such buildings. In the case of Ch’ullpas Kinsachata, some of them may have been re-used by the Incas and others that have been built by them, but always with funerary purpose
For burials volcano area Kinsachata these are made in small buildings, very similar to those of P’isaq or to other places inkas. It should be noted that a large majority of individuals have been found mummified in cubito-fetal position and other horizontal and saltire crossed over his chest, this position being purely ritual characteristics. Therefore, this whole area would be nothing less than one of the cemeteries of this extensive area of social settlement.
Landfills of Yanamancha:
Clarifying the term garbage dumps, we say they are deposits or sectors where they dumped waste or detritus, more or less as landfill areas. These places are important for research because in them fragments of various objects, whole or piecemeal utensils and elements of daily life of a people or a particular society are, you can still determine food and culinary uses by detritus organic that they can be found. Thus garbage dumps of Yanamancha are very important for the investigation of human group that inhabited this place, so a lot of different elements is especially pottery shards that give us a clear indication of the socio-business who made the inhabitants of this area as it shows the high pottery production.