Description Set Ollantaytambo:
The Town of Ollantaytambo:
Currently, almost all sectors of prehispanic this area are abandoned and left to predation with the complacency of the authorities (case Pilcowasí sector).
The only sector that we can say, is preserved, it is the town of Ollantaytambo, but not by the action of the authorities, but by a small part of its inhabitants, and where architecture and many buildings Inkas are preserved; these sectors of origin Inka are inhabited today and only have restructured ceilings, in other cases, the Inca walls have risen colonial walls or existing walls in adobe Some houses are new (adobe or brick), but foundations, in which they have built, are Inkas or traces of ancient foregoing constructions are, but these new constructions have respected the stroke of architecture and urban prehispanic (except an occasional construction) of streets, kanchas (neighborhoods) , etc. The current square of the town, possibly unrelated to the urban distribution of this city Inka.
The streets of this town are narrow and straight path. As Prehispanic time, these streets, in the side or central parts, have channels draining rainwater, which currently, in some even observed. You can also see, on these streets, the characteristic line Inka. Currently, traditional names of origin Inka found in some of the streets, and in the coming towards the west, as Patakalli, Chaupikalli, Lariskalli and Hornokalli hybrid (the term calli is Castilianized and must be an original name q’ijllu), streets running north to south, the nearest hill Pinkuylluna, are called Qowekalli, Phuyukalli, Umakalli, Rosaskalli and K’ijtukalli. One element that stands out is that in kanchas (neighborhoods) and streets, the Inkas doors only occur in areas facing north and south, and the kanchas and streets facing west or east, no there are doors in the walls oriented to these addresses, on these streets with faces east or west are only vain colonial and moderaos and if one puts a little more attention, you will see that the names are more Hispanicized.
This population, stroke and urban planning Inka, is inhabited today, a fact that makes it even more important.
Inka city is separated into two areas by the Patakancha stream, channeled or funneled from time Inka (runs through the village), an element that will give a clear indication of urban design Inka urin (bass) and Hanan (high); well, from time to Inka Currently, there are two Ayllus (community), the Qosqo Ayllu is Araqama the eastern and western Ayllu is.
The colonial town inka used to erect the population; the strongest destruction of these prehispanic areas, was carried out under the orders of the nephew of San Ignacio de Loyola, the Spanish captain Martin Oñas of Loyola; the destruction of these sectors is given at the time of the persecution of the rebel army of Manko Inka after the failed takeover of Cusco in 1536; reductions in 1571-1572, ordered by the Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo, were not applied to the area of Ollantaytambo and even today, is still destroying these very important sectors.
The Pukaras or Fortines:
These pukaras or pillboxes are:
These are the two forts classified in the archaeological land, although some published books mentioned the existence of the blockhouses of:
Logically, it could not ensure that these places are pukaras or strengths, it is a hypothesis that arises in relation to the location where these buildings are because it is also said that these were points of surveillance, control and defense, more they may have had, in fact, a social function as deposits, since the planning rural-urban Inka is no military characteristics (unless the new archaeological historical research, etnohistóricas and prove otherwise), but we are inclined to the second option social, by geopolitical aspects of the Inka state.
Bridge and the River:
The bridge currently Inka which side settlements and buttress or central pilaster are observed, it is an element that shows the architectural advancement that ancient Peruvians were able. This bridge was possibly pendant.
In front of the central buttress the Inka bridge the presence of two large lithic blocks, specifically emplaced in this place is seen to serve as a shock and breaking of the pushing force of the mainstream of the river, to release the pressure exerted by the and shock current towards the sides of the tenon, dividing thus the river into two arms and creating a dam nearly dry plant containment.
The -river still retains, in this place in a very visible, channeling walls; one kilometer from the bridge you can see these walls pipeline, with which the Incas channeled the river, changing the course of it, so they could gain new farmland, protect them against erosion because of new meanders or modification the river, either won or pre-existing areas of agricultural nature areas; they are thus high-tech elements of hydraulic and agricultural engineering of this town.
Throughout this archaeological site is a lot of platforms or terraces of agricultural character, or as we said above, they were, at the same time, elements of protection of ecosystems and ecology as well as expansion of agricultural frontiers.
Both the platforms of this set and the platforms of other places are the flying or floating staircases, which are outgoing lytic the wall.
Also, as in all cities of this people and large territorial areas, the State to adapt the mountains for agriculture; So, here it is not unusual these terraces, elements used to make a balance of production and while it increased with socio-population purposes provided by the State
Inka in this city were many doors, whether of access or egress, doors through which different sectors of the urban area were connected, so with the paths arriving and departing. Of these only is known by the name of Wakapunku or Punkupunku or also Llaqtapunku (these three names determine a single door), which is retaining and is located on the curve of the road when entering; to town. Inka as the city was encircled by a wall or wall, the door was relative to the outer wall of the city.
The square is located in the central part of the city and is currently parking of vehicles, this was the square of this socio-urban center, to similarity of the sacred plaza of Cusco. The square of Ollantaytambo is called by some Kuichipunko, others call Manllaraqui and a third group the called Mañayraqay (maña = order, request, Raqay = construction), this square is divided by a wall, which forms two squares, element which makes it closer to the square of Cusco (which was a large square divided into two by a channelized stream).
This is the core group, which generally is the most visited. It is called the fort, perhaps a misinterpretation by the Hispanic invaders (the name comes from the colonial era).
At the bottom of the square is a two-story building, which possibly had either a religious or administrative function is observed; then a succession of terraces, which extend to the top of the mountain, the vast majority have the kind of facings settlement with mortar and the last three on the left hand for a better preparation, settlement dry, which shows a cover of double jamb, which was the main access to the upper buildings. Then, at the bottom of this terrace door it is a classic Inka associated with a wall that has several trapezoidal niches.
At the top, large blocks of megalithic character lithic red diorite, stone coming from the quarries are K’achiqhata. These buildings usually are called Temple of the Sun, perhaps by the orientation they have, but all temples and places of worship Inka generally have this type of orientation east-west, not only temples dedicated the Sun, but any religious place; It is in this place where the great stone mantle composed of six large blocks, one of which there is the presence of the stepped sign called as we know, are Pata Pata; this sector before the Sun temple was staggered by the presence of the sign, a temple to the ground.
In the back of the set is a lot of buildings that could be housing rooms or deposits. On the side of the mountain (as opposed to this sector), some buildings which they call viewpoints, according to the hypothesis, since you can not actually determine their specific function are observed.
Las Canteras and Transport Blocks:
The most important quarries are in the sector K’achiqhata, on the left bank of the Vilcanota River and is in the mountain of the same name, in the middle part and which today blocks are half work and other fully developed, as well as stone hammers of various types. This place diorite blocks used in buildings, which were transported by means of inclined planes and rollers to the construction site were extracted; It is that the blocks were worked in quarries and not in place of the buildings; the inclined planes still are seen on the side of the mountain, in the sector of the great temple with megalithic walls (in the field of so-called fortress); as in the plain abandoned a few blocks, possibly for different reasons when they were transported; these people the blocks. He has christened tired and stones can be seen in the bases the way they were transported. These elements were studied by J. Ogden Outwater Jr. In his paper “Building the Fortress of Ollantaytambo” published in Andean Technology.
An interesting approach is that it is possible to divert the river with temporary damming, changing the course of it to pass blocks.
Sources and Channels:
There are several sources in Ollantaytambo, which we can say that some are ritual, the vast majority is more utilitarian character or a dual function; the best known source is the “Bathing Ñusta”, which is again observed that a sign is well known, the. step sign (Pata Pata). Element for which the ritual nature of this source is clearly seen, compared to other nearby sources and there is a big difference. The different sectors of the population consists Ollantaytambo, had a system of channels drinking water and sewage disposal, channels that are almost entirely underground character; well, there are artificially channeled streams.
Wall and Inkawatana Sector:
The wall was not only prepared one. alone, part of the complex, but rodeo all the residential area of Ollantaytambo, as a possible protection system. In the same sector of the so-called fortress, this wall, we can judge not only as an element of protection from attacks, but could also say that it was an element is population control.
In the Bandolinista hill (where the misnamed fortress is}, in its upper part, a group called Inkawatana, meaning where the Inka was tied, a name that has already current connotations, because the original name is not known is; is said to be a sector of torture, as in the construction sector a trapezoidal niches are and that more or less in the middle, on the side flanks, holes through lithic from one side to another are, for which it is said that there are tied to the Incas and are tortured, people ascribed different functions linked always with justice or a system of penalties imposed; more, we can posit that could be systems to tie amphoras or other elements, although we can define its specific function
Quechua name Castilianized, element, too, is at the top of the hill Bandolinista, and is made in a isitu rock, where the population with its traditional thinking, says the Inka performed Mass, ie towards religious rites; but in reality, in this place, the pre-Hispanic Quechua people, build a site for astronomical observation and both a ritual sector was where possibly the original Intiwatana of Ollantaytambo.
Mountain of the same name the various constructions which are observed; in this way, at the right angle, mid-mountain several one-story buildings are; in the middle and central part of the same mountain, a building that resembles have several floors looks and actually is constructed terraces on various levels; and finally, on the left side, a construction of a floor can be seen, according to the traditional theory, it is proposed that these buildings are schools and prisons, but in reality, what has been determined it is that these were elements of social utility They were deposits or department stores (qholk’as).
Sector is approximately 14 km from Ollantaytambo, in the bottom of the ravine Oqobamba and the banks of the river Patakancha.; a lot of platforms and it is the most remarkable in this sector are called by the name of Munaypata; these platforms are still irrigated by a system of canals, which receive a constant capacity of water in times of dry and rainy for the use of the stream Yurajmayu, which is tributary to a larger stream of Wankachaka, forming, all these, the stream Patakancha.
The platforms were associated with a housing urban features – rural inka, known as Pumamarka, and composed his Hanan (high) and urin (bass), with kanchas (neighborhoods), Q’ijllus (streets) and squares.
E. W. Middenforf in “Peru III” when he visited Ollantaytambo, recorded that the stream now called Yurajmayu, called the late nineteenth century waman Ripa, and the other stream called today Wankarchaka, called Markaqpacha.
Charles Wiener, French researcher, who in 1880 was in Ollantaytambo, collects mention that the creek is now called Patakancha, was called in the late nineteenth century Pallata.
In the gorge of Aobamba, on the left bank of the creek Patakancha, important excavations have been carried out (by Arminda Gibaja of Valencia and later some works by Pedro Taca). In this area, we found kanchas of housing and ritual, as well as utilitarian, ritual and utilitarian sources, channeling water systems and sewage disposal, a room with an indoor fountain.
In all this area it has made restoration of terraces, a staircase, road, canals and a very important kancha; this sector has walls of stone finely crafted isódomo character or rectangular blocks of settlement to settlement dry polygonal walls with mortar and other plastered with clay.