The city of Piquillacta prequechua process belongs to the Wari state.
Process belonging to the so-called Regional Training Regional or also known as Period or Regional Developments.
We must indicate that the process Warpa established contacts with the Ica-Nasca (human settlement) process, which brought a cultural exchange, with the subsequent development of ceramics; almost parallel +600, pottery ayacuchana region consolidates established three forms or styles: Okros, Chakipampa and Black; so also in this period it reaches the Ayacucho region, and very strongly the influence of Tiwanaku, although we can not say the types of cultural influence that came to this region, what we can say is that it was not a Tiwanakota invasion peaceful or military, was an influence of a cultural nature; the presence of the image is engraved in the Puerta del Sol, and various decorative elements are designed in large ceramic urns is observed, which are classified as the Q'onchapata style and have the form of V, of thick walls, similar to the type of ceramic Tiwanaku.
During this period, an intensification of a production process specialized craft concordant with the urban process occurs.
Q'onchapata was not a major urban center, but its extension was considerable and binding character. Q'onchapata is that the transition process Warpa-Wari is given.
The elements of the Tiwanaku deities achieve greater adaptation and acceptance, and of + 560 + 600 to get to develop a ceramic known as Robles Moqo, ceremonial character while Q'onchapata is a ayacuchano definitely local time, Robles has an area Moqo most extensive influence and development covering the regions of Ayacucho, Ica-Nasca, the Santa valley and Alley Waylas in the mountains; This period corresponds to the first phase of social settlement Wari, (it is very important the amount of materials that come from Pacheco in Nasca and are in the process Robles Moqo, which are being studied again, Robles Moqo has a ceramic basic influence Tiwanaku) designs; it is assumed that the passage of the ideological influence of the plateau to the Ayacucho region may have been through art or textile industry, elements that are the only ones where the divinity of the Sun Gate of Tiwanaku appears and commercial traffic reached the Ayacucho region.
It is located 25 Km. of Ayacucho. It was the capital of a complex socio-economic-political-cultural system, which some branded as an empire and others like confederation and whose area of influence covered the regions of Cajamarca, Lambayeque by the north and the south region departments of Cusco and Arequipa . Wari was a city of high population density, with very high walls constructions. It noted, is that these buildings are one, two, or three floors, architectural elements organized by neighborhoods, which had a perimeter fencing with interior streets of varying sizes; and in the city of Piquillacta in Cusco, they were plastered with clay, lime or gypsum.
We also note constructions triangular character that has not been able to clarify the role played, buildings were possibly ritual characteristics.
So in Cusco and Ayacucho, these human groups harbored populations estimated at several thousand people. Waris cities were built with rustic lithic and settlement Mollero mud ring with walls made of stone blocks and very high; well paved land or terrazaron for buildings of their cities, in these cities there were buildings, whether religious, public or houses and networks of channels found make us think that there was a complex system of liquid supply; collections of figurines turquoise, found in the city of Piquillacta in Cusco, show a high degree of development of crafts and industry within cities Waris.
Within three periods Wari, the second phase, between the seventh and tenth centuries, is the period of maximum splendor and apogee stage is represented by its pottery, which is itself Wari and has regional varieties such as:
This is the period when Wari reached its maximum expansion, as follows:
North to Lambayeque and Cajamarca.
South to Cuzco and Arequipa.
When Waris came to conquer and dominate Lurin, the whole Pachakamaq was already a religious center very populated and developed, but with the establishment of Waris, this sector became the most powerful central coast, so there was a style of pottery.
The Waris be the introducers of a new conception of urban life and urban planning, with the implementation of large walled urban centers, examples of this are the cities of Piquillacta in Cusco and wirakochapampa in Cajamarca. The economic base of Waris is the exploitation of the conquered territories which are tributaries of the metropolis; this exploitation of the territories conquered by military force expansionist and imperialist character will make possible the establishment of urban centers while sustaining these.
Phase III of the Wari Declination:
The period called the Wari decline is characterized by political and economic decay with subsequent abandonment of cities, as well as the loss of control over the occupied through military conquest territories. So after the eleventh century, the people who were under the control and command Wari, returning to the system of autonomous life independent development, so the Ayacucho region begins a stage of underdevelopment with a clear abandonment of the process of urban life and subsequent return to the small village populations of rural character, almost similar or equal to the early periods of Warpa period, ie a process of involution occurs and not evolution.
Such Piquillacta Properly:
The vast archaeological site Piquillacta is composed of a large number of archaeological sites, including the city of the same name is located.
The term Piquillacta is a Quechua word that translated into Castilian mean: piki = flea and llaqta = city; by which city would become flea, but not for the existence of these insects but by the amount of people that this place possessed.
B. State of Conservation:
This sector was within the domains of finance and enclosures, as all sets that make up this archaeological site, served as pens and grazing areas and also areas of agricultural use, which contributed mightily to the almost total collapse constructions and was helped by clandestine diggers or treasure hunters and various other factors (rain, lack of care, etc.) therefore now appreciate a pretty destroyed and pillaged archaeological site.
C. The Legend Piquillacta City:
This legend was published by Dr. Luis A. Pardo in his book "History and Archaeology of Cusco". This legend is in relation to water coming into this sector, since the area of the city has no natural source of supply of this liquid and this is conveyed through channels a considerable distance to a tank or reservoir, place which water is distributed. We will mention the legend broadly: "Muyna was governed by custom Qapaq Inca Wayna, the Rumichaka curaca, which had a beautiful daughter named Sumaj T'ika, which was at age matchmaker, so this young man had many suitors, but between one was all that caught the attention of the young, it was the noble son of Auki T'ito curaca of Antipampa;. this brave doncel came to capture the confidence and brother Sumaj T'ika this Aqorumi ", ie the suitor belonged to cusqueño sector known as T'iunos ideology," in this trance the son of an Inca official Collao region arrived in the region, the nobleman was called Atoj Rimachi; sent this valuable and beautiful young princess Sumaj present T'ika, which with great courtesy and finesse rejected. With the support and help of his father Rumichaca, fearful princess rivalry of the two suitors decided to get married with the first to make the water get to the palace gate; known the condition imposed by Princess suitors returned to their hometowns to seek help from their families, these two princes, as well as many others, returned to undertake this work, but the difficulties the vast majority withdrew leaving only these two pretenders. "We must clarify that Atoj Rimachi is a prince of the south (Qollao), ie Qolluno, continuing the legend" which undertook the work with their respective people seconded them, undertaking work in the field of Lucre in the sector Rajch'i, drawing and performing parallel channels, through the sector Rumin Qolqay by the cover of the same name, and was Auki T'ito, the T'iuno, which was favored, sending water to the palace gates princess in a span of six months, after which, the betrothal with large parties was conducted. Burdened by the weight of their defeat the qolluno Atoj Rimachi hanged himself. '' Currently the channels running in parallel from Lucre appreciate, flanking the mountain called Qosqoqhawarina, also seen in one of the kanchas of Piquillacta a channel, which many people call this the palace of Princess Sumaj T ' ka.
D. The Home of Rumin Qolqa:
Etymologically, Rumin = stone (s), qolqa = deposit, which would mean stones deposit, whether it becomes a quarry, which was used in inka time and is at a height of about 3, 300 m. s. n. m. m. This place is one of the checkpoints of entry and exit of Cusco; referring to Rumin Qolqa say that is mentioned and described by Pedro Cieza de Leon. Note that the two covers have a kind of very different kind of walls of the pre-Hispanic city of Piquillacta, ie, that the walls of the covers are made of isodómicos lithic considerably large settlement dry architectural facing, in the top of the covers and terraces ran a canal that carried water to the city of Piquillacta. It is clear that this construction does not belong to the period, this time being Inka.
E. Piquillacta City:
It lies on the slope of a mountain. This city belongs to the period of Wari State; It was a very important center of population settlement and a very high density, it follows logically by the amount of construction; a larger population of people is calculated and today more or less buildings are appreciated, but the vast majority of these are destroyed by various factors; conducted research and archaeological survey various national researchers and foreigners, and among nationals have to Drs. Luis A. Pardo, Luis Barreda Murillo, Manuel Chavez Ballon, Emilio Hart Terre, Luis Lumbreras, etc., among foreigners we can mention researchers W. Sanders, Gordon Mc Evvan, etc. In these various excavations fragments of pottery, metal objects were found, so Dr. Luis A. Pardo found a stone sculpture of a puma; in some unauthorized excavations in 1927, Mr. Justo Román Aparicio found two collections of microliters (small sculptures in stone) in turquoise, one of which was recovered from the beginning, and the other it was subsequently; these two collections are made approximately about forty micro-sculptures, which are now exhibited at the Museum and Archaeological Institute of the National University of San Antonio Abad of Cusco. This city has straight streets are staircases. Quarters or neighborhoods are very large architectural elements; what is striking is the existence of an internal street that encircles the buildings and in some cases all four sides of the building, others only three and only two other sides; well, it is observed that are unique and huge rooms, average height of the walls are also very high appreciate both streets and rooms a few blocks beyond the walls, elements that served bracket to hold or support the sleepers or planks that tended to the upper floors. An assessment made shows in some cases the presence of buildings ovoid, oval and triangular character, which might have different functions, which to date has not been determined. The architecture is quite simple, are lytic without much canting are settling mud mortar; these walls, at the bottom have larger (wider) and as they rise diminishing (taper).
The first excavations of Gordon McEwan showed an architectural ensemble attached to religious functions assumed was underground character, but actually has no underground characteristics; in the current excavations also performed by Gordon (1989), we are showing elements that are truly amazing, as the walls were plastered with mud and then coated in white, the floors of the rooms, bleachers and walkways lined with a pavement plaster very hard, so the presence of niches in the rooms and lots of associative elements and ceramic fragments of turquoise; these excavations show us, in a very clear way that there is a deposition of earth, gravel and very large stone, which raised floors in a very pronounced causing many buildings, walls and floors remain buried, so I could not see that the Wari met plaster, stucco walls and floor coverings for rooms, bleachers and streets All these elements, together with the presence of a reservoir, canals and terraces, give us a precision polifunción that fulfilled this city, which was a social city, an administrative center and owned buildings dedicated to administrative, religious, housing and utilitarian functions.
Then in the last Andean period before the Great Western invasion, Piquillacta was occupied by the Incas, who used these buildings dedicating their purposes. We must clarify that the Incas readapted the preceding cities, according to planning and urban design and Piquillacta inkásiko was one of these precedents cities that was reordered according to the policies of Quechua State; possibly served and was used as a settlement of mitimaes groups, ie especially in the Inca period, Piquillacta was more utilitarian than in the previous period; if we review the planning system and urban planning of the Incas, we see that they built cities that agreed to ideas, plan and function of the Inca state, but the preceding cities Quechua state were retrofitted and modified according to planning and planning socio-urban Inka State.